Peters, Leipzig. The result is a treasury of fine keyboard music — in an attractive, high-quality volume — by an innovative and influential composer whose music continues to win new admirers. The term came to apply both to the structure of individual movements see Sonata form and History of sonata form and to the layout of the movements in a multi-movement work.
In the transition to the Classical period there were several names given to multimovement works, including divertimento , serenade , and partita , many of which are now regarded effectively as sonatas. The usage of sonata as the standard term for such works began somewhere in the s. Haydn labels his first piano sonata as such in , after which the term divertimento is used sparingly in his output. The term sonata was increasingly applied to either a work for keyboard alone see piano sonata , or for keyboard and one other instrument, often the violin or cello.
It was less and less frequently applied to works with more than two instrumentalists; for example, piano trios were not often labelled sonata for piano, violin, and cello. However, two-movement layouts also occur, a practice Haydn uses as late as the s. There was also in the early Classical period the possibility of using four movements, with a dance movement inserted before the slow movement, as in Haydn's Piano sonatas No.
Mozart 's sonatas were also primarily in three movements. Of the works that Haydn labelled piano sonata , divertimento , or partita in Hob XIV , seven are in two movements, thirty-five are in three, and three are in four; and there are several in three or four movements whose authenticity is listed as "doubtful. But increasingly instrumental works were laid out in four, not three movements, a practice seen first in string quartets and symphonies , and reaching the sonata proper in the early sonatas of Beethoven.
However, two- and three-movement sonatas continued to be written throughout the Classical period: Beethoven's opus pair has a two-movement C major sonata and a three-movement D major sonata. Nevertheless, works with fewer or more than four movements were increasingly felt to be exceptions; they were labelled as having movements "omitted," or as having "extra" movements.
Thus, the four-movement layout was by this point standard for the string quartet, and overwhelmingly the most common for the symphony.
The usual order of the four movements was:. When movements appeared out of this order they would be described as "reversed", such as the scherzo coming before the slow movement in Beethoven's 9th Symphony. This usage would be noted by critics in the early 19th century, and it was codified into teaching soon thereafter. Three movements of this sonata originally written in German and French, and the last two movements are described in German because of the unusual tempo.
The translation in English shown in italic as below:. The sonata opens in a 2 4 time Adagio with a short, simple motif of three chords, at first forming an interrupted cadence , over which are written the three syllables Le-be-wohl "Fare-thee-well". This motif is the basis upon which both the first and the second subject groups are drawn. As soon as the introduction is over and the exposition begins, the time signature changes to alla breve and the score is marked Allegro.
The first movement oscillates between a turbulent first subject which portrays deep disturbance and a second subject which is more lyrical in nature and gives the impression of reflections. The rhythmic figure of two short notes and a longer note which is used repeatedly in the first subject is developed inexorably through the "development" section with rich harmonies and discords which are harmonically closer to the later period of Beethoven's compositions than the middle for their intellectual penetration.
Freddy Kempf. Vladimir Ovchinnikov. Warner Classics. Prokofiev: The Piano Sonatas 2. Ilya Yakushev. Nimbus Alliance. Natalia Trull. Sorel Classics. Prokofiev: Piano Sonatas, Vol. Peter Donohoe. Prokofiev: The Piano Sonatas. Yakov Kasman. Richter plays Prokofiev. Sviatoslav Richter. Matti Raekallio.
Prokofiev: Piano Sonatas. Prokofiev: The Sonatas for Piano. Anne-Marie McDermott. Prokofiev: Piano Sonatas, Volume 1. Pyotr Dmitriev. Prokofiev: Sonates pour piano Nos. Bernd Glemser. Sviatoslav Richter in the s, Vol. List of sonatas Category:Sonatas Portal:Classical music. Stradella Hulda Ghiselle. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Sonata in A major for Violin and Piano, arranged for flute and piano 1.
Allegretto moderato 2. Allegro 3.
French Cello Sonatas, Vol. Shlomo Mintz. Nimbus Alliance NI Erato Urtext Cage underwent an artistic crisis in the early s. The Guitar Music of Paganini. RCA Victor EMI Classics
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