Anglaise 1 French Suite No. Gigue 1 French Suite No. Adagio e piano sempre 1 Keyboard Concerto No. Larghetto 4 Keyboard Concerto No. Largo 70 Keyboard Concerto No. Sarabande 3 Partita in G minor tr. View all new releases. The old-established university drew scholars and men of distinction from far and wide, and the famous book trade contributed much to the cultural life of the city. One of Leipzig's most important features was its international commerce. When the Leipzig Trade Fair was in progress, the respectable town was transformed into a show-ground mixing business with pleasure, and was popular with members of the Royal Court of Dresden.
Many connections were established between nations on these occasions, and this in turn had a beneficial effect on the civic economy and culture as well as the international variety of its music. He would have known the town from previous visits, as he had come, for instance, in December to test the large new organ 53 stops in the University Church, the Paulinerkirche, just completed by the Leipzig organ builder Johann Scheibe. The Bach family at that time comprised his wife and four children, of eight, nine, twelve and fourteen years of age.
May 31, , marked the inaugural ceremony for the new Capellmeister with the customary speeches and anthems, putting an end to six unsettled months for the city in filling the post. The school of St Thomas was situated on the western wall of the town, not far from the imposing Pleissenburg fortress with its large tower on the south-western corner of the town wall.
The school had around 60 boarders, aged between 11 and early 20s, and provided the choirs for at least four city churches. These boarders were mainly from deprived backgrounds and were maintained at the school on a charitable basis, and they also occasionally had to sing outdoors at funerals and in the city streets for alms. Bach's apartment in the school was divided between the ground floor and the next two floors.
From the window of his study Componierstube on the first upper floor of the Thomasschule, Bach would look out west over the town wall, to a magnificent view of the surrounding gardens, fields and meadows, a view about which Goethe later wrote "When I first saw it, I believed I had come to the Elysian Fields".
Along here were some of the eight Leipzig garden Coffee-houses situated outside the town, where much of the musical life of the city took place during the summer. Indeed the city was nicknamed 'Athens on the Pleisse', and offered many attractions for the summer holiday-makers in its well cared-for parks and pleasure gardens beside the river Pleisse and its idyllic surrounding countryside. Though contemporary newspaper reports stated that the incoming Cantor's apartments were "newly renovated", the building itself, dating from , was however, in a somewhat dilapidated condition; discipline was practically non-existent, the staff quarreled among themselves, and the living conditions were unhealthy.
Parents were unwilling to send their children to a school where illness amongst the pupils was so prevalent, and consequently, there were only 54 scholars out of a possible The Cantor's duties were to organize the music in the four principal churches of Leipzig, and to form choirs for these churches from the pupils of the Thomasschule.
He was also to instruct the more musically talented scholars in instrument playing so that they might be available for the church orchestra, and to teach the pupils Latin which Bach quickly delegated to a junior colleague. Out of the 54 boys at Bach's disposal for use in the different choirs, he stated, '17 are competent, 20 not yet fully, and 17 incapable'.
The best singers were selected to form the choir which sang the Sunday cantata; one week at the Thomaskirche, the other week at the Nikolaikirche. A 'second' choir, of the same size but less ability, would sing at the church without the cantata. The 'third' choir of even less ability at the Petrikirche, the 'fourth' at the Neuekirche. The orchestra used for the cantatas consisted of up to 20 players. It may be assumed by the presence of the near-legendary Gottfried Reicha among them both as wind and string player, and after their "senior", that they were players of a high standard.
Surprisingly perhaps to present-day readers, they were expected to be proficient in the violin, reed, flute and brass families. They were under the control of the Thomaskantor. Bach would certainly have taken steps early on to ensure that the instruments used wee in top condition. We know that the stringed instruments used were maintained during the s, and several of them built, by the celebrated Leipzig instrument maker and Court Lute-maker J C Hoffmann Hoffmann's instruments are still in possession of and played in the Thomaskirche today.
Hoffmann incidentally also built a viola pomposa, a tenor of the violin family, to Bach's orders. Music-making was a popular pastime, and the regular concerts at Zimmerman's Coffee House and other musical venues would indicate that there were no doubt musicians in the town who could be invited to attend in the gallery for church performances. Thus it may be assumed that Bach could count on a fairly professional orchestra.
Bach's many arias featuring oboe obbligato attest to the presence of a good oboist among the town's wind players possibly Reicha himself? Viola and violin obbligati Bach would normally play himself. It is highly unlikely that there was either a chamber organ or a harpsichord in the gallery - the main organ being used exclusively. The wealth and complexity of instrumentation in Bach's cantatas is evidence itself that musicianship of a high standard was not hard for him to obtain.
His sons and pupils would also have participated, together with visiting musicians happy no doubt to have the honor of performing under the direction of the now famous Herr Bach. Singing classes were held from 9 to 12 am on Mondays, Tuesdays and Wednesdays. On Thursdays the Cantor was free, on Friday he taught in the morning. Rehearsals for the Sunday Cantatas took place on Saturday afternoons. The Sunday services began at 7a. The cantata, usually lasting about 20 minutes, preceded the hour-long sermon, or if the cantata was in two parts, it came before and after the sermon.
The main service finished at about mid-day, after which there followed a communion service. There were also week-day services for Bach to superintend at the four churches, also in one of the ancient hospitals and in a 'house of correction'.
Although these services were simple and required only a few hymns, the Cantor had to organize a group of about nine singers to work on a rota system. Apart from this, he had to attend and compose music for funerals and various other occasions. Bach also took a lively interest in the divine services at the University church, the Paulinerkirche. It was only after he had conducted eleven services up till Christmas , that he discovered that the Cantor of Leipzig was no longer officially director of music in the University church, this position being given to the moderately talented organist of the Nikolaikirche.
A long dispute between Bach and the authorities arose over this, and it was only after he had appealed to the Elector of Saxony at Dresden that a compromise was reached. Bach nonetheless performed his duties as required, pursuing during these early years his long-held objective of providing a complete set of cantatas for every Sunday corresponding to the liturgical year.
This self-imposed task was largely completed during his first 5 years, after which he produced cantatas with less regularity. It may sometimes appear to listeners enjoying Bach's cantatas today, that some of the arias are - well - perhaps a little less imaginative than might be expected from such a great master.
That this is in fact the case may be explained by recalling the educational customs of Bach's time. Much stress was placed on "learning by doing" - by copying or transcribing works of the masters, by copying part-scores for performances, by working out continuo parts It should also be recalled that any duties enumerated as part of a titular position were to be fulfilled, but not necessarily by the incumbent personally.
Bach's position for example required him to provide instruction in Latin, which he did by delegation. Delegation was an accepted means of fulfilling obligations, and was also seen as means of instructing the more gifted pupils.
While Bach did in fact delegate the composition of some recitatives and arias to his pupils, he would always set the tone by composing an opening chorus reflecting the scriptural theme of the week. In the case of more important occasions he would compose the entire cantata himself. The listener can usually be sure of Bach's personal authorship of a particular aria or recitative when it bears Bach's "signature" - accompaniment scored for strings, rather than simple figured bass.
One particularly special performance of a work by Bach was recorded in some detail: the cantata known as the Trauerode, BWV In , the Elector Augustus of Saxony assumed the Polish crown, a step that obliged him to adopt the Roman Catholic faith.
His wife, Christiane Eberhardine, preferred her Lutheranism to her husband, however, so she renounced the throne and lived apart from him until her death on September 6th, , an event which was deeply mourned in strongly Lutheran Saxony. Two weeks later, one Hans von Kirchbach, a nobleman student at the University of Leipzig, proposed to organize a memorial service in the Paulinerkirche during which he would deliver a valedictory address.
Von Kirchbach commissioned a sometime librettist of Bach's, Johann Christoph Gottsched, to write verses for a mourning ode, and Bach to set these verses to music. Bach was then granted permission to compose the Ode, albeit with a reprimand that he was not thereafter "to assume the right to compose music for academic festivals.
In any case, the score was finished on the15th, just two days before the performance. A great catafalque bearing the Queen's emblems stood in the center of the crowded church, and the service began with the ringing of all the bells of the city. Kirchbach delivered his oration after the second chorus. According to the program, the Ode was "set by Herr Bach in the Italian style.
When fuller, more detailed and more recent research is taken into account these records may perhaps give an unbalanced picture of Bach's life there at that time. There is no doubt whatsoever that he was widely respected as a composer, musician, teacher, organist, and specialist in organ construction. This respect was to grow steadily, as Bach's reputation widened, and as he gained the official title of Court Composer to the Dresden Court - the Elector of Saxony and King of Poland.
This comfortable security of position combined with the fact that Bach had established, during his first six or seven years' tenure, a more than sufficient repertoire of cantatas it has been suggested that he composed in total some , allowed him to widen his musical scope of activity.
In particular, Bach had become famous, not only as an organist and improvisator, but as an expert in organ construction. As a result he was frequently asked to advise on new organ specifications and to test newly completed instruments with a thorough and detailed examination and report, as was the custom of the time. Bach developed a close working relationship with his contemporary, the celebrated Saxon organ-builder Gottfried Silbermann, who was also a personal friend of the Bach family and godfather to Carl Philipp Emmanuel.
View full details. Bach to the future - Vinyl Edition. Olivier Latry organ of Notre-Dame de Paris. Ida Haendel violin. Martha Argerich piano. Vladimir Horowitz piano. He treats them all with love; treats them as great music, too, showering on even the frailest the full blast of his interpretive powers Due for release on 4th Sep Order now and we will deliver it when available.
View full details. Bach to the future - Vinyl Edition. Olivier Latry organ of Notre-Dame de Paris. Ida Haendel violin. Martha Argerich piano. Vladimir Horowitz piano.
Barely nine months later his father also died. Electronic Folk International. Find out more. Canone doppio sopr' il soggetto, J.S. Bach*, canon for 3 unspecified instruments or keyboard in G major, BWV Along here were some of the eight Leipzig garden Coffee-houses situated outside the town, where much of the musical life of the city took place during the summer. See more Bach Album Reviews. J.S. Bach* further visit to Leipzig after the 'Fall of the Edouard Commette - Preludi - Toccate (Vinyl in yielded several antique books offering some interesting LP) of Bach's Leipzig with full descriptions, the prize among them being a large format illustrated volume published in featuring line engravings of Leipzig's history selected and fully annotated by Dr Gustav Wustmann, at that time State Librarian and Director of the Leipzig City Archives. Every track has its own allure, and many reflect a virtuosity which is Romantic Evening Sex All Themes.
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