With real money at stake, the system needed skilled jockeys, trainers, grooms, and experts at breeding, thereby opening new prestigious careers for working-class rural men. Every young ambitious stable boy could dream of making it big. Horse racing is one of the few sports that has continued during the COVID crisis,  with Australian and Hong Kong the two main racing jurisdictions to carry on, albeit with no crowds.
Different breeds of horses have developed that excel in each of the specific disciplines. Light cold blood horses, such as Finnhorses and Scandinavian coldblood trotter are also used in harness racing within their respective geographical areas.
There also are races for ponies: both flat and jump  and harness racing. Flat racing is the most common form of racing seen worldwide. Flat racing tracks are typically oval in shape and are generally level, although in Great Britain and Ireland there is much greater variation, including a figure of eight tracks like Windsor and tracks with often severe gradients and changes of camber, such as Epsom Racecourse.
Track surfaces vary, with turf most common in Europe and dirt more common in North America and Asia. Newly designed synthetic surfaces, such as Polytrack or Tapeta , are seen at some tracks. Short races are generally referred to as "sprints", while longer races are known as "routes" in the United States or "staying races" in Europe. Although fast acceleration "a turn of foot" is usually required to win either type of race, in general sprints are seen as a test of speed, while long-distance races are seen as a test of stamina.
The most prestigious flat races in the world, such as the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe , Melbourne Cup , Japan Cup , Epsom Derby , Kentucky Derby and Dubai World Cup , are run over distances in the middle of this range and are seen as tests of both speed and stamina to some extent. In the most prestigious races, horses are generally allocated the same weight to carry for fairness, with allowances given to younger horses and female horses running against males.
These races are called conditions races and offer the biggest purses. There is another category of races called handicap races where each horse is assigned a different weight to carry based on its ability. Jump or jumps racing in Great Britain and Ireland is known as National Hunt racing although, confusingly, National Hunt racing also includes flat races taking place at jumps meetings; these are known as National Hunt flat races.
Jump racing can be subdivided into steeplechasing and hurdling , according to the type and size of obstacles being jumped. The word "steeplechasing" can also refer collectively to any type of jump race in certain racing jurisdictions, particularly in the United States. Typically, horses progress to bigger obstacles and longer distances as they get older, so that a European jumps horse will tend to start in National Hunt flat races as a juvenile, move on to hurdling after a year or so, and then, if thought capable, move on to steeplechasing.
A type of racing where horses go around a track while pulling a sulky and a driver behind them. In this sport, Standardbreds are used. These horses are separated into two categories, trotters and pacers. Pacers move the legs on each side of their body in tandem, while trotters move their diagonal legs together. The latter are typically faster than the former due to the gaits used. This could cause the loss of a race or even a disqualification.
Ridden trot races are more common in places such as Europe and New Zealand. These horses are trotters who race on the flat under saddle with a jockey on their backs. The length of an endurance race varies greatly. Some are very short, only ten miles, while others can be up to one hundred miles. There are a few races that are even longer than one hundred miles and last multiple days.
Contemporary organized endurance racing began in California around , and the first race marked the beginning of the Tevis Cup  This race was a one-hundred-mile, one-day-long ride starting in Squaw Valley , Placer County , and ending in Auburn.
Founded in , the American Endurance Ride Conference was the United States' first national endurance riding association. In most horse races, entry is restricted to certain breeds; that is, the horse must have a sire father and a dam mother who are studbook-approved individuals of whatever breed is racing. The exception to this is in Quarter Horse racing, where an Appendix Quarter Horse may be considered eligible to race against standard Quarter Horses.
The designation of "Appendix" refers to the addendum section, or Appendix, of the Official Quarter Horse registry. An Appendix Quarter Horse is a horse that has either one Quarter Horse parent and one parent of any other eligible breed such as Thoroughbred, the most common Appendix cross , two parents that are registered Appendix Quarter Horses, or one parent that is a Quarter Horse and one parent that is an Appendix Quarter Horse.
AQHA also issues a "Racing Register of Merit," which allows a horse to race on Quarter Horse tracks, but not be considered a Quarter Horse for breeding purposes unless other requirements are met. A stallion who has won many races may be put up to stud when he is retired. Artificial insemination and embryo transfer technology allowed only in some breeds has brought changes to the traditions and ease of breeding. Pedigrees of stallions are recorded in various books and websites, such as Weatherbys Stallion Book , the Australian Stud Book and Thoroughbred Heritage.
There are three founding sires that all Thoroughbreds can trace back to in the male line: the Darley Arabian , the Godolphin Arabian , and the Byerley Turk , named after their respective owners Thomas Darley , Lord Godolphin, and Captain Robert Byerly. They were taken to England, where they were mated with mares from English and imported bloodlines. Thoroughbreds range in height, which is measured in hands a hand being four inches. Some are as small as 15 hands while others are over Thoroughbreds can travel medium distances at fast paces, requiring a balance between speed and endurance.
Artificial insemination, cloning and embryo transfer are not allowed in the Thoroughbred breed. The standardbred is a breed of horse used for a variety of purposes, but they are largely bred for harness racing.
They are descended from thoroughbreds, morgans, and extinct breeds. Standardbreds are typically docile and easy to handle. They do not spook easily and are quite versatile in what they can do. They can be jumpers, dressage, and pleasure riding horses.
The Arabian horse was developed by the Bedouin people of the Middle East specifically for stamina over long distances, so they could outrun their enemies. It was not until that the Arabian was introduced into the United States. Until the formation of the Arabian Horse Registry of America in , Arabians were recorded with the Jockey Club in a separate subsection from Thoroughbreds.
Arabians must be able to withstand traveling long distances at a moderate pace. They have an abundance of type I muscle fibers , enabling their muscles to work for extended periods of time. Also, the muscles of the Arabian are not nearly as massive as those of the Quarter Horse, which allow it to travel longer distances at quicker speeds.
The Arabian is primarily used today in endurance racing but is also raced over traditional race tracks in many countries. The ancestors of the Quarter Horse were prevalent in America in the early 17th century. These horses were a blend of Colonial Spanish horses crossed with English horses that were brought over in the s.
The native horse and the English horse were bred together, resulting in a compact, muscular horse. At this time, they were mainly used for chores such as plowing and cattle work. The American Quarter Horse was not recognized as an official breed until the formation of the American Quarter Horse Association in In order to be successful in racing, Quarter Horses need to be able to propel themselves forward at extremely fast sprinter speed.
The Quarter Horse has much larger hind limb muscles than the Arabian, which make it less suitable for endurance racing. When Quarter Horse racing began, it was very expensive to lay a full mile of track so it was agreed that a straight track of four hundred meters, or one-quarter of a mile, would be laid instead. There is less jockeying for position, as turns are rare, and many races end with several contestants grouped together at the wire. The track surface is similar to that of Thoroughbred racing and usually consists of dirt.
Muscles are bundles of contractile fibers that are attached to bones by tendons. These bundles have different types of fibers within them, and horses have adapted over the years to produce different amounts of these fibers. Type I muscle fibers are adapted for aerobic exercise and rely on the presence of oxygen.
They are slow-twitch fibers. Categories : Horse races by country Horse races Horse racing-related lists Lists of sports events. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description with empty Wikidata description. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
The Horse Race Insider is a privately owned magazine. All copyrights reserved. Thunderstorms and lightning is very, very frighting on a lazy never hazy summer afternoon, a look at just who might make the grade on the penultimate weekend in August.
Will the real Maximum Security stand up? Did he need his recent return that badly? Baffert suspended 15 days by Arkansas officials Two-time Triple Crown-winning trainer Bob Baffert has been suspended for 15 days by the Arkansas Racing Commission after two of his horses tested positive for a banned substance.
Heat racing for four-year-olds continued in the United States until the s. Horse racing. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Early history Organized racing Match races Open field racing Bloodlines and studbooks Evolution of races The modern age of racing Jockey clubs and racing authorities Handicap racing Purse money and stake fees Wagers Racing ages Breeding theory and practice Racecourses Racing procedure Racing silks Racing strategy Training The state of racing.
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.
Download as PDF Printable version. Beating Caracaro and Dr Post, at home with lots of res and agains weak tea fields is not exactly a litmus test. Longboarding Sandboarding Slalom skateboarding Street Horse Race. In the Roman Empirechariot and mounted horse racing were major industries. The longer race led to deaths and injuries to participating horses in both and the 11th National Games in Likewise, the number of the first runner-up and second runner-up would win the second Horse Race third prize, respectively, with the rest winning consolation prizes. High society was in control, and they made a special effort Horse Race keep the riff-raff out and the criminal element away from the wagering. Typically, horses progress to bigger obstacles and longer distances as they get older, so that a European jumps horse will tend to start in National Hunt flat races as a juvenile, move on to hurdling after a year or so, and then, if thought capable, move on to steeplechasing. One such keeper at Newmarket in England, John Cheny, Horse Race, began publishing An Historical List of All Horse-Matches Runa consolidation of match books at various racing centres, and this work was continued annually with varying Horse Race, until in James Weatherby Horse Race it as the Racing Horse Racewhich was continued thereafter by his family.
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