Cluck viser noe av sitt rike stemmeregister, med trollbindende harmonier. Vokalen er mikset dobbelt, noe som gir rom for rike klangbunner. The Way You Were. Til og med musikerne er de samme. Her er folk fra de nevnte band, samt Trees, Pentangle og No-Man.
Resultatet kunne fort blitt geriatrisk, men det skjer ikke. Mer genrefast enn grensesprengende. Tyngdepunktet bretter seg ut over halve platen. Det er i seg selv bemerkelsesverdig. En by med en vibrerende musikkscene, og der en god andel er med her.
Autumn bears a bitter song Creeping out across the yard And weaving through the alder branches overhead Of all that is escaping us I have never been so certain as today. Legg et nytt navn til denne rekken. Marissa Nadler har et visst slektskap til den engelske folkscenen og tradisjonell britisk musikk, i likhet med de gode hjelpere i Espers.
Av de mange erfarne musikerne som ellers er med, kan det nevnes at trommis Jay Bellerose tidligere har dasket med Suzanne Vega og Elton John, og at Dylan Williams bratsj har spilt en del med indie-heltene Guided By Voices. Sjefen er likevel Nina Nastasia.
Et sted mellom disse kan vi plassere Nina Nastasia. Disse unge, obsternasige jentene bryter en del med den tradisjonelle viseformen. Nive Sings! Og la meg si det med en gang — dette er en utmerket plate. Det var derfor med en viss forventning jeg satte meg ned sammen med hennes debutalbum. Og for en stemme! Thomas er bosatt i Seattle, og der er hun for mange kjent som stand-up komikeren Sheila.
Med stemmen som hovedinstrument og den akustiske gitaren som varsomt akkompagnement sier det selv at dette ikke er et karneval av en plate. Det betaler seg, dette er en plate som, tross sin minimalistiske kledning, har en kraft som drar lytteren mot seg.
Hans signatur er slett ikke fjern fra Will, men noe lunere og varmere i stilen er han, den svingende stemmen som beveger seg fra verandahusken og helt tilbake til amerikansk folkemusikks barndom deler de begge. Joji er likevel ingen Joya. Spokane Spokane har et landsens preg over seg, men ikke som the usual cup of country. Spokane blir gjerne kalt Syrinbyen Lilac City , en blomst som avhengig av fargen symboliserer ungdommelig uskyld, anstendighet, renhet, ydmykhet.
The Proud Graduates kan nemlig med glede benyttes utenfor soverommet. Da vil tankene kunne flyte uforstyrret en stund, tenker jeg. Gjennom korte, talende setninger understrekes den relativt tungsindige stemningen. Et fellestrekk er etter sigende erfaringen de fikk etter en alvorlig bilulykke bandet var involvert i for kort tid siden, noe som i hvert fall kan leses direkte fra platetittelen.
Med det har Spokane vendt seg noe bort fra kammerstemningen som preget forgjengerne. Ikke en tone til overs. En park med tomme benker. Mittens full of snow. And the promise of warm hands. Det er fremdeles helt stille overalt. Du setter deg ned og ser natten langsomt lysne til dag. Og der kan du sitte. The length of days has widened now. The cost of times seems clear.
Det hviler en trolsk, nesten gammelmodig stemning over denne utgivelsen, noe i likhet med hva skotske Appendix Out har gjort til sitt varemerke. Bevel etableres inn i den mer tilbaketrukne delen av folk-tradisjonen. I det minste for en stakket stund. Summer Hymns fra Athens, Georgia lever virkelig opp til navnet sitt. De er til gjengjeld meget betagende. Summer Hymns anno har ikke helt mistet popsensibiliteten sin, men heller tonet noe ned sin form for psykedelia-pop.
Value Series Vol. Value Series. Magnet Mountain er hans andre album. Musikken er fortsatt langsom, dvelende tar det aldri helt av med Early. Instrumenteringen er holdt enkel, her er det ikke tegn til leven av noe slag. Og rosa. Inspirert av denne seansen ble EPen Jehovah Surrender til. Micah P. Hinson: Micah P. Noe av det mest imponerende med hans debut er den store variasjonen han med tilsynelatende letthet behersker. Oktober i fjellet.
Denne trioen spiller i hvert fall musikk som passer til denslags rurale aktiviteter. Kask unveils bold new colors for POC which has built an international reputation on safety, innovation and design is introducing several new models, innovations and updates for its cycling collection. Specialized have transformed the bicycle helmet into a live tracking device, crash detector, and safety beacon. No annual fees, a design that works with virtually any cycling helmet.
ANGi not only adds protection, but it connects you to help when you need it most. But today the situation has reversed, and black-and-white film is generally reserved for dreams or flash-backs. The Wizard of Oz. In the s, cinema entered its rebellious phase. Film was no longer simply entertainment for the illiterate masses. The believers claimed that film had special properties and functions not found in other media. Today, cinema no longer has to defend itself as a form of artistic expression.
The development of video games as a medium Let us approach video games in a similar fashion. For present purposes, we are interested in the development of their relationship with other media and other phenomena, rather than their aesthetic development per se. As to content, on the other hand, the game designers were explicitly inspired by science fiction books and low-brow action movies Graetz, Spacewar also borrowed from non-electronic games.
It mimicked certain skill-based ball games and, more importantly, it required two players. With the growth of arcade games in the early s, game designers drew heavily on pop culture symbols. Game cabinets explicitly cited popular movies, which, although often irrelevant to gameplay, enriched the game experience by framing it within a larger narrative.
First, Night Driver challenged the dominance of the third-person perspective by having the player drive into the screen from a first-person perspective. This mirrors discoveries made by movie-makers in the s and s who found new ways to work with the camera and perspective.
Second, another driving game, Death Race , shattered the status of games as harmless fun by sparking widespread fear of the detrimental effects of on-screen violence.
Although the arcade business involved intense creativity, few entertained the notion that games should be considered anything more than entertainment. This public perception was rooted in the fact that games were closely associated with the teenagers who played them, and the somewhat dark and disreputable arcades that housed them. This perception changed with the release of Zork in , an early adventure game. Games could now approximate literature. Those who wrote about video games started describing them in radically different terms.
In return, adventure game designers began the attempt to separate themselves from their less-lofty arcade relatives. Rothstein, The effort to distance adventure games from other game genres can be interpreted in two ways.
On the one hand, this evolutionary step was could be seen as fully justified, since these game types are radically different and offer far richer or deeper experiences.
Compared to then-contemporary action games such as Space Invaders, adventure games could offer far more complex and emotionally rewarding stories.
They offered a chance to experiment with alternative story lines, and enabled the player to confront the consequences of choice and the very nature of narrative form. Adventure games essentially miss that which is special about games. By confining the player to a linear story, designers display a lack of courage to engage in shared authorship.
These games illustrate an immature understanding of the medium, one which merely makes games subservient to literature. As the reader will have noticed these two positions do not represent answers to a scientific question. Let us note, then, that adventure games appealed to many, while others considered them boring.
Considering the target audience, the struggle by many adventure game designers to frame their work in terms of literature was a successful marketing strategy. Text adventure games vanished from the mainstream in the late s. The late nineties saw another far more coordinated and successful attempt to argue for the relevance of games as aesthetic objects.
First of all, game design had reached a level of complexity where professionalization was necessary. Gone were the days where single individuals worked out of their garage to create popular games.
Meanwhile, the academic world was rapidly becoming interested in games as aesthetic and cultural objects, rather than as simply a sub-genre of literature or a dangerous social phenomenon. The IT University of Copenhagen in and the university of Manchester in held the first international conferences on video games. Further evidence came with the rise of ludology see Smith, which was a move towards studying games first and foremost in their capacity as rule-based systems.
Today, both the analysis of video games continues unabated. The relationship between games and cinema Video games are compared and contrasted to movies more often than to any other media.
Though the two differ greatly in the way they present on-screen activity, games have adopted a variety of conventions established by Hollywood style cinema.
Most obviously, they do not skip frames which would disorient the player. Doing so would reverse the direction of on-screen objects; a person moving in one direction would suddenly seem to be moving in another. Nowhere is this more obvious, of course, than in games which closely mimic the structure and form of narrative films. Adventure games like Gabriel Knight III uphold these conventions almost completely, as do games with scripted editing like the Resident Evil series.
Resident Evil 2: The game uses scripted editing that complies with Hollywood conventions. While similarities stand out, one crucial difference between games and movies relates to the use of editing. Some games have semi-linear narratives and employ almost the entire arsenal of movie conventions, but many do not.
Action games like Kung Fu Master and Doom , for instance, do not divide the on-screen action into sequences of shots, but rather display continuous streams of images that stop only when the player reaches a new level.
Doom uses two techniques that are impossible in narrative film for dramatic or practical purposes. Firstly, the game uses the first-person-perspective only. It would require super-human planning and luck, and would do away with many fundamental film techniques such as close-ups, cross-editing, reaction shots, and establishing shots. Perhaps the ease with which the Doom player orients himself is a testament to the success of letting the player control perspective with his mouse or keyboard.
Cross-media titles The video game business has a longstanding affair with Hollywood. Mostly, it is a win-win situation. One may piggyback on the popularity or marketing efforts of the other and, increasingly, one may directly use material produced in the making of the other.
Also, the two do not really compete for the same money or time. However, the relationship has undeniably been fraught with artistically questionable products.
The game failed so spectacularly that, arguably, the link between movies and video games was compromised for years. It was evident beyond any doubt that a good movie did not automatically make for a good game. For reasons already mentioned, however, the temptation did not vanish. Since those days, many movie blockbusters at least those with strong action elements have been increasingly accompanied by one or more games. Many of these adaptations have worked well, but it is noteworthy that practically none of these games are seen as groundbreaking.
Recently, attempts have been made to go beyond the mere translation of movie to game. Enter the Matrix , for instance, tried including scenes that were not shown in the movie Matrix: Reloaded in an attempt to create a more exciting synergy between the media. Reviewers were not impressed. Influential Gamespot. More recently in , Electronic Arts attempted yet another alternative strategy, by releasing the James Bond game Everything or Nothing as an original Bond title without a supporting movie.
The developers scanned actors who appeared in the movies in order to have game characters mimic their movement styles and mapped their faces onto the characters. This attempt was met with much more critical success than Enter the Matrix. We also see movies based on games, but with far less regularity. Oddly enough from a design perspective, the games chosen for the silver screen have mostly been action games.
The Super Mario Brothers movie is based on a game which revolves around the less than epic kinetics of jumping between platforms while avoiding small animals.
The movie obviously had to move quite far from the defining features of the game. This is less the case with the movies based on street fighting games like Double Dragon , Street Fighter and gory, arena-based Mortal Kombat. These games can be converted into action-packed movie narrative easily and directly, although the movies have not been particularly ambitious productions in terms of budgets.
Creepy survival horror games translate almost directly, though the attempt is not always successful. Practically universally disparaged by critics, the movie was a hit at the box office inspiring a sequel, Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life.
Continuity and self-reflexivity In narrative literature and movies, suspension of disbelief is generally achieved by presenting a coherent, self-contained world and a story that does not call attention to its artificial nature. In mainstream cinema we do not see the movie production crew on-screen and in novels we do not hear about the author.
Similarly, we might think that successful games immerse the player in an experience by supporting his suspension of disbelief. But some games seem to sin against this rule by specifically highlighting their gameness.
In some cases, however, game designers include more playful features that bridge the gap between representation and real life. In many real-time-strategy games such as Warcraft II units will start addressing the player directly if clicked repeatedly without being given orders. Such gimmicks arguably break the illusion and remind the player of the artificiality of the situation.
From a traditionalist Hollywood perspective, this illusion must be preserved for the spectators to be able to lose themselves in the narrative. Film-makers of the modernist school have challenged these classic film-making conventions. Here, Adams voices a common notion that games and all media must uphold certain rules and conventions that help transport the player to an imaginary space. The slightest incongruence may violently rip the player out of this space, rendering the experience shallow and imperfect.
There is an opposing position, however. They argue that, to the contrary, we become engrossed in games through the activity of play, which necessarily entails that the player, at some level, is aware that the situation is at once real and make-believe. Even Adams admits that many games do in fact make strategic use of mixing fictional levels. In the case of real-time-strategy games the player is probably less immersed in a narrative than feverishly processing strategic opportunities in her head and thus not likely to be torn from any deep-felt immersion.
In games that rely on the progression of a richly textured narrative such antics may well seem inappropriate, however. In other words: we need to take into account genre when considering the effects of immersion-disruptive techniques. Interactivity Games require the active participation of players and the way a game plays out depends on input from players.
This, at a very concrete and basic level, sets games apart from linear media like novels or movies. A typical game is more like an amusement park than like a novel. Generally, the concept of interactivity has been associated with positive notions of freedom and the liberation of media users.
Having people make choices and exert influence was, particularly during the s, one of the greatest emancipatory promises of computing and networking. Game scholar Espen Aarseth points out that attempts to produce nonlinear fiction are not tied exclusively to computer technology but can be found throughout the entire history of written literature.
The industrial rhetoric produced concepts such as interactive newspapers, interactive video, interactive television, and even interactive houses, all implying that the role of the consumer had or would very soon change for the better. Aarseth, , p. What is interactivity? Media Scholar Jens F. Jensen has emphasized that the concept is multi-discursive having significantly different meanings in different fields Jensen, In particular, he focuses on three.
Interactivity refers to the meaningful ways in which the user becomes a co-author by directly manipulating variables. DVD viewers are technically able to edit their own narrative and can influence the form of the movie by adjusting the lighting or sound. But the video game player is usually able to determine the configuration of the signs presented to him or her on-screen and through the speakers.
Again, the issue is genre-dependent. Most discussions of interactivity in video games are muddled by the fact that they assume that users of other media are passive. This corresponds poorly to the understanding employed by most media scholars who argue that media use such as television viewing demands a high degree of cognitive activity on the part of the viewer.
The meaning of a movie is something that the viewer must largely construct cognitively from what are essentially patterns of light on a screen. Also, media users sometimes make interpretations that are different from or even opposite to the intended meaning. A few remarks towards the end We can, contrary to common arguments, learn much about video games by looking at other media, even film. While analogies can of course run out of control, the cultural development of games has many similarities with that of film and the two media obviously inspire each other thematically and aesthetically to great extents.
At present, studies of the cultural reception of video games during the course of their four decades of existence are sparse. In particular, cross-national studies of how various cultures have dealt with the arrival of video games on the cultural landscape would be illuminating; not least for developers and publishers who are still facing some opposition from policy makers and from those who would delegate gaming to the domain of children and the young.
Such studies would help us understand an important part of the video game ecology, the effects of which - however subtly - influences both games, their creators, and their players. References Adams, E.
Postmodernism and the Three Types of Immersion. Graetz, J. The Origin of Spacewar! Burnham Ed. Holden, S. The New York Times. Jensen, J. Rothstein, E. Reading and Writing: Participatory Novels. Salen, K. Rules of Play - Game Design Fundamentals. London: MIT Press. Smith, J. Does gameplay have politics? Aarseth, E. Cybertext : perspectives on ergodic literature. London: Johns Hopkins University Press. To say that the review created a controversy would be an understatement; in fact, the backlash against the review was so intense that I refrained from writing reviews for more than a year after its publication.
Three years older, but none the wiser, I approach the task of writing a review of Second Person: Role-Playing and Story in Games and Playable Media with a certain wariness, but also with the hope of righting wrongs that I may have inflicted unintentionally because I simply had too high expectations. The fact that Second Person is no longer entrenched in the theory wars between narratologists and ludologists, and draws on a more diverse pool of contributors, makes this task much easier.
First off, the list of contributors bears some reflection. Of the 50 contributors, eleven are women. Most of the authors live and work in the United States. Their backgrounds are almost exclusively Western. Admittedly, this is a problem that plagues not only new media studies but also many other fields of research, but this is precisely why it is a point worth reiterating. This sounds confusing, and indeed it was. Therefore, I am very pleased to see that this concept has been abandoned.
While the first one deals with role-playing and storytelling systems that do not require a computer, the second part is about interactive media including computer games, cyberdrama, and hypertext. In doing so, Costikyan covers a lot of ground that has already been covered by scholars such as Espen Aarseth, but he does not add anything to his structuralist analysis of ergodic texts. Costikyan thus sets the tone for the first part of the book. However, while Salen and Zimmerman at least recognize the fact that games are inscribed into cultural contexts, the embeddedness of games is largely disregarded by the contributors to Second Person.
Overall, however, the first part is especially interesting for researchers in the field of digital games, because it demonstrates the manifold possibilities of integrating storytelling and games in non-computational media.
The second part, by comparison, offers less interesting examples and less interesting writing. While some of the descriptive pieces in the first part are nothing but post mortems or thinly veiled advertisements, some of the shorter contributions in the second part seem to serve no purpose than to include the names of some renowned researchers in new media, such as Lev Manovich and Marie-Laure Ryan.
Again, there is an abundance of examples, particularly in the area of interactive fiction, but ultimately most of these are so obscure as to render them invisible outside of the small circle of academics who study them.
One of the few genuinely ground-breaking essays in the entire book is D. The contributors in the third part of the book look at alternate reality games ARGs , persuasive games, and massively multiplayer games, as well as more experimental forms of play such as improvisational theatre. Clearly, this is the miscellaneous section of the book, and it is hard to discern any kind of overarching theme in the contributions to this section.
This is a particular interesting example of how theoretically advanced positions are rejected in favour of simplistic models of representational identity and monolithic citizenship in order to package politics into a game. This refusal to engage with the economic context in which ARGs take place threatens to render her entire argument moot because she disregards capital as a source of power. Even more dubious is her suggestion that player performativity solves the problem of unequal power distribution in ARGs.
This is at least partially due to the fact that it lacks coherence, and there is hardly any interplay between the individual essays. This, however, is a problem that plagues the book throughout.
While there is a semblance of coherence in the first two parts, it is quickly revealed to be superficial. While First Person tried to hard to engage the contributors in a conversation, Second Person has given up on the idea of intertextuality almost entirely. It contains a lot of information, but most of this information is only potentially useful. Considering the recent inflation of game-related books it would have made much more sense to create a companion website with background materials for the book than to put all this material in the book itself.
In the final analysis, then, Second Person is clearly an improvement on its predecessor, albeit a small one. At the same time, it remains unclear which audience this book is trying to reach.
Most academics will probably reject it as too shallow, while game designers are likely to shun it for its lack of practical advice. Considering that Second Person strikes me as fairly cliquish and exclusionary, I fear that the only people who will take an interest in it are the contributors themselves.
The title of this book suggests a comprehensive overview of the field of game studies and possibly answers to fundamental questions. Aphra Kerr takes a political economy approach to the international business of making games, from the pre-development stage to retail. Stages of game design are examined by Jon Sykes, who offers dread phrase! Concept identification 2. Research 3. Defining game mechanics 4.
Balancing game mechanics 5. Game evaluation. Juli Jeg rykker dem, ca. Glemmer at sende del af ordre. Manglende info til kunde. Bestilte 4 ting for 19 dage siden og har kun modtaget de 2 af dem. Den ene af de ting der er modtaget, var endda en som var i restordre. Langsommelig kundeklagebehandling over e-mail, hvis det passer dem at svare! Newer Post Older Post Home. Subscribe to: Post Comments Atom. Top 10 most viewed.
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Nevertheless, it represented a particular evolutionary stage that has parallels in game design, as we Eidskogvisa - Julie Grundt - Endelig (CD see below. Practically universally disparaged by critics, the movie was a hit at the box office inspiring a sequel, Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life. Above two and I start questioning my commitment to continue. Se bare hvilken instrumentpose Chet W. Newer Post Older Post Home. I Album) done many failed instances with funny people. Brown, When examining learning games from a simulation perspective learning by doing we would be wise to be cautious with games trying to communicate abstract information, concepts and ideas, which are learned through language, and are primarily represented by language.
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