Participants in the included studies had a diagnosis of dementia of any subtype and severity. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in included studies, involving other authors to reach consensus decisions where necessary. We did not perform any meta-analyses because of heterogeneity between studies, but presented a narrative synthesis of results from the included trials.
As far as possible, we used GRADE methods to assess our confidence in the results of the trials, downgrading for risk of bias and imprecision. We included 13 studies with participants. All participants had dementia and in the 12 trials which described the setting, all were resident in institutional care facilities. Nine trials recruited participants because they had significant agitation or other behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia BPSD at baseline.
The fragrances used were lavender eight studies ; lemon balm four studies ; lavender and lemon balm, lavender and orange, and cedar extracts one study each. For six trials, assessment of risk of bias and extraction of results was hampered by poor reporting. Four of the other seven trials were at low risk of bias in all domains, but all were small range 18 to participants; median 66 , reducing our confidence in the results.
Our primary outcomes were agitation, overall behavioural and psychological symptoms, and adverse effects. Ten trials assessed agitation using various scales.
Among the five trials for which our confidence in the results was moderate or low, four trials reported no significant effect on agitation and one trial reported a significant benefit of aromatherapy. The other five trials either reported no useable data or our confidence in the results was very low. Eight trials assessed overall BPSD using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and we had moderate or low confidence in the results of five of them.
Of these, four reported significant benefit from aromatherapy and one reported no significant effect. Related Items. Music Conversation Cards. Chair Exercise DVDs. Therapeutic Music Care CDs. Excellent arrangements. Love them! Songs of Faith CD and Songbook. Reviewer: Patricia A. Clin Nursing Res.
Lubinski RB. State-of-the-art perspectives on communication in nursing homes. Topics Language Disorders. Why so little interest whether or not old people talk: a review of recent research on verbal communication among the elderly. Jacelon CS. The effect of living in a nursing home on socialization in elderly people. J Adv Nursing. Effects of memory aids on conversations between nursing home residents with dementia and nursing assistants.
Neuropsychol Rehabil. The structure of social engagement among nursing home resident. J Gerontol Psychol Sci. An international study of social engagement among nursing home residents. Age Aging. Grainger K. Communication and the institutionalized elderly. Handbook of Communication and Aging Research. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Search Menu. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents Abstract. M ethods. R esults. D iscussion. E-mail: ryuta idac.
Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Katsuo Okita. Ritsumi Yamazaki. Nobumoto Tajima. Hajime Yoshida. Masato Taira. Kazuki Iwata. Takeo Sasaki. Katsujiro Maeyama. Nobuo Usui. Koji Sugimoto Koji Sugimoto. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Background. Open in new tab Download slide. Table 1. Notes : Numbers in parentheses indicate standard deviation. Open in new tab. Table 2. Mean Subscores on the Frontal Assessment Battery.
Control Group. Learning Group. Notes : Numbers in parentheses are standard deviations. Table 3. Notes : Number in parentheses are standard deviations. Int Psychogeriatr. Issue Section:. Download all slides. View Metrics. Email alerts Article activity alert. Advance article alerts. New issue alert.
Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Related articles in Web of Science Google Scholar. This sequence then leads to a folding of the chain to produce a specific and unique shape for the molecule. It is this shape that gives each protein its ability to carry out a specific function in the body. These functions include such things as the source of building materials for all the different cells of the body as well as the source of hormones, enzymes, antibodies, etc.
Alzheimer's is a disease that involves the misfolding of two brain proteins. It is the most common dementia among older adults and today it affects some 5. It is the underlying cause of some , deaths each year. The causes probably include a combination of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. When someone develops Alzheimer's, there appears to be an issue with two naturally occurring brain proteins identified as amyloid and tau.
For reasons not yet fully understood, the misfolding of amyloid produces plaques that collect outside nerve cells neurons disrupting their activity and eventually leading to their death. The tau protein produces tangled strands inside neurons. This disrupts the flow of signals within the neuron and causes the neuron to wither and die. Researchers are trying to understand and track the cascade of events in the brain that leads to Alzheimer's.
It is hoped that doctors will soon be able to identify those most at risk based on their genetics, conduct imaging tests to determine the onset, and then start the most effective therapies to either slow or halt further progress of the disease.
Sixteen Daementia - Daementia (CD) and 16 age- and Mini-Mental State Examination score-matched control subjects participated. Clinical Neurology. Koji Sugimoto Koji Sugimoto. Jacelon CS. Eight trials assessed overall BPSD using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and we had moderate or low confidence in the results of five of them. The mistakes were corrected by the participants. Excellent arrangements. An international study of social engagement among nursing home residents.
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