Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. What links here Upload file Special pages Printable version Page information. Description Runway landing designator marking-Numbers. You are free: to share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work to remix — to adapt the work Under the following conditions: attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
Blue Angels Navy Demo Team. Concorde Airliner Mach 1 and Above. Fire Up Engines Aircraft Unknown. Gear-Up Unknown Aircraft. Jet Pass Unknown Aircraft.
Missle Launch. Slow Jet Aircraft Unknown. Spool Up Aircraft Unknown. Tu Russian Airliner. UH1 Bell Helicopter used mostly in Vietnam. Air Force One. Airport Distances. The cell phone may actually start performing component operations for various of the possible functions before any has been selected—particularly those operations whose results may be useful to several of the functions.
Pre-warming can also include resources within the cell phone: configuring processors, loading caches, etc. The situation just reviewed contemplates that desired resources are ready to handle the expected traffic. In another situation the pipe manager may report that the carrier is unavailable e. This information is reported to control processor module 36 , which may change the schedule of image processing, buffer results, or take other responsive action.
If other, conflicting, data transfers are underway, the carrier or interface may respond to the pipe manager that the requested transmission cannot be accommodated, e. In this case the pipe manager may report same to the control processor module The control processor module may abort the process that was to result in the two megabit data service requirement and reschedule it for later. Alternatively, the control processor module may decide that the two megabit payload may be generated as originally scheduled, and the results may be locally buffered for transmission when the carrier and interface are able to do so.
Or other action may be taken. Consider a business gathering in which a participant gathers a group for a photo before dinner. The user may want all faces in the photo to be recognized immediately, so that they can be quickly reviewed to avoid the embarrassment of not recalling a colleague's name. Even before the user operates the cell phone's user-shutter button the control processor module causes the system to process frames of image data, and is identifying apparent faces in the field of view e.
These may be highlighted by rectangles on the cell phone's viewfinder screen display. One mode may be selected by the user to obtain names of people depicted in a photo e. Another mode may be selected to perform optical character recognition of text found in an image frame.
Another may trigger operations relating to purchasing a depicted item. Ditto for selling a depicted item. Ditto for obtaining information about a depicted object, scene or person e. Ditto for establishing a ThinkPipe session with the item, or a related system. These modes may be selected by the user in advance of operating a shutter control, or after. In other arrangements, plural shutter controls physical or GUI are provided for the user—respectively invoking different of the available operations.
If the user at the business gathering takes a group shot depicting twelve individuals, and requests the names on an immediate basis, the pipeline manager 51 may report back to the control processor module or to application software that the requested service cannot be provided. Another three faces may be recognized within two seconds, and recognition of the full set of faces may be expected in five seconds.
This may be due to a constraint by the remote service provider, rather than the carrier, per se. The control processor module 36 or application software may respond to this report in accordance with an algorithm, or by reference to a rule set stored in a local or remote data structure. The algorithm or rule set may conclude that for facial recognition operations, delayed service should be accepted on whatever terms are available, and the user should be alerted through the device GUI that there will be a delay of about N seconds before full results are available.
Optionally, the reported cause of the expected delay may also be exposed to the user. These cloud resources can include, e. If any responds in the negative, or with a service level qualification, this too can be reported back to the control processor module 36 , so that appropriate action can be taken.
In addition to the just-detailed tasks of negotiating in advance for needed services, and setting up appropriate data connections, the pipe manager can also act as a flow control manager—orchestrating the transfer of data from the different modules out of the cell phone, resolving conflicts, and reporting errors back to the control processor module While the foregoing discussion has focused on outbound data traffic, there is a similar flow inbound, back to the cell phone.
The pipe manager and control processor module can help administer this traffic as well—providing services complementary to those discussed in connection with outbound traffic. In some embodiments, there may be a pipe manager counterpart module 53 out in the cloud—cooperating with pipe manager 51 in the cell phone in performance of the detailed functionality.
The technology of branch prediction arose to meet the needs of increasingly complex processor hardware; it allows processors with lengthy pipelines to fetch data and instructions and in some cases, execute the instructions , without waiting for conditional branches to be resolved.
A similar science can be applied in the present context—predicting what action a human user will take. When a user removes an iPhone from her purse exposing the sensor to increased light and lifts it to eye level as sensed by accelerometers , what is she about to do?
Reference can be made to past behavior to make a prediction. Particularly relevant may include what the user did with the phone camera the last time it was used; what the user did with the phone camera at about the same time yesterday and at the same time a week ago ; what the user last did at about the same location; etc.
Corresponding actions can be taken in anticipation. Expect to maybe perform image recognition on artwork from a DVD box. To speed possible recognition, perhaps SIFT or other feature recognition reference data should be downloaded for candidate DVDs and stored in a cell phone cache. Recent releases are good prospects except those rated G, or rated high for violence—stored profile data indicates the user just doesn't have a history of watching those. So are movies that she's watched in the past as indicated by historical rental records—also available to the phone.
If the user's position corresponds to a downtown street, and magnetometer and other position data indicates she is looking north, inclined up from the horizontal, what's likely to be of interest? Even without image data, a quick reference to online resources such as Google Streetview can suggest she's looking at business signage along 5 th Avenue. Maybe feature recognition reference data for this geography should be downloaded into the cache for rapid matching against to-be-acquired image data.
To speed performance, the cache should be loaded in a rational fashion—so that the most likely object is considered first.
Google Streetview for that location includes metadata indicating 5 th Avenue has signs for a Starbucks, a Nordstrom store, and a That restaurant. Stored profile data for the user reveals she visits Starbucks daily she has their branded loyalty card ; she is a frequent clothes shopper albeit with a Macy's, rather than a Nordstrom's charge card ; and she's never eaten at a That restaurant. Perhaps the cache should be loaded so as to most quickly identify the Starbucks sign, followed by Nordstrom, followed by the That restaurant.
Low resolution imagery captured for presentation on the viewfinder fails to trigger the camera's feature highlighting probable faces e.
That helps. There's no need to pre-warm the complex processing associated with facial recognition. She touches the virtual shutter button, capturing a frame of high resolution imagery, and image analysis gets underway—trying to recognize what's in the field of view, so that the camera application can overlay a ranked ordering of graphical links related to objects in the captured frame.
Unlike Google web search—which ranks search results in an order based on aggregate user data, the camera application attempts a ranking customized to the user's profile.
If a Starbucks sign or logo is found in the frame, the Starbucks link gets top position for this user. If signs for Starbucks, Nordstrom, and the That restaurant are all found, links would normally be presented in that order per the user's preferences inferred from profile data. However, the cell phone application may have a capitalistic bent and be willing to promote a link by a position or two although perhaps not to the top position if circumstances warrant.
Other user data may also be provided, if privacy considerations and user permissions allow. The restaurant server offers three cents if the phone will present the discount offer to the user in its presentation of search results, or five cents if it will also promote the link to second place in the ranked list, or ten cents if it will do that and be the only discount offer presented in the results list. Starbucks also responded with an incentive, but not as attractive. The cell phone quickly accepts the restaurant's offer, and payments are quickly made—either to the user e.
Links are presented to Starbucks, the That restaurant, and Nordstrom, in that order, with the restaurant's link noting the discount for the next two customers. Google's AdWord technology has already been noted.
It decides, based on factors including a reverse-auction determined payment, which ads to present as Sponsored Links adjacent the results of a Google web search. Google has adapted this technology to present ads on third party web sites and blogs, based on the particular contents of those sites, terming the service AdSense. Consider a user located in a small bookstore who snaps a picture of the Warren Buffet biography Snowball.
The book is quickly recognized, but rather than presenting a corresponding Amazon link atop the list as may occur with a regular Google search , the cell phone recognizes that the user is located in an independent bookstore. Context-based rules consequently dictate that it present a non-commercial link first. Top ranked of this type is a Wall Street Journal review of the book, which goes to the top of the presented list of links Decorum, however, only goes so far.
Google may independently perform its own image analysis on any provided imagery. In some cases it may pay for such cell phone-submitted imagery—since Google has a knack for exploiting data from diverse sources. Per Google, Barnes and Noble has the top sponsored position, followed by alldiscountbooks-dot-net.
The cell phone application may present these sponsored links in a graphically distinct manner to indicate their origin e. The AdSense revenue collected by Google can again be shared with the user, or with the user's carrier. In some embodiments, the cell phone or Google again pings the servers of companies for whom links will be presented—helping them track their physical world-based online visibility.
The pings can include the location of the user, and an identification of the object that prompted the ping. When alldiscountbooks-dot-net receives the ping, it may check inventory and find it has a significant overstock of Snowball. As in the example earlier given, it may offer an extra payment for some extra promotion e. In addition to offering an incentive for a more prominent search listing e.
For example, a user may capture video imagery from an electronic billboard, and want to download a copy to show to friends. The user's cell phone identifies the content as a popular clip of user generated content e. To induce the user to link to MySpace, MySpace may offer to upgrade the user's baseline wireless service from 3 megabits per second to 10 megabits per second, so the video will download in a third of the time.
This upgraded service can be only for the video download, or it can be longer. The link presented on the screen of the user's cell phone can be amended to highlight the availability of the faster service. Again, MySpace may make an associated payment. Sometimes alleviating a bandwidth bottleneck requires opening a bandwidth throttle on a cell phone end of the wireless link.
Or the bandwidth service change must be requested, or authorized, by the cell phone. In such case MySpace can tell the cell phone application to take needed steps for higher bandwidth service, and MySpace will rebate to the user or to the carrier, for benefit of the user's account the extra associated costs.
In some arrangements, the quality of service e. Instructions from MySpace may request that the pipe manager start requesting augmented service quality, and setting up the expected high bandwidth session, even before the user selects the MySpace link. In some scenarios, vendors may negotiate preferential bandwidth for its content. The higher quality service may be highlighted to the user in the presented links. Many artificial light sources do not provide a consistent illumination.
The emitted spectra depend on the particular lighting technology. Organic LEDs for domestic and industrial lighting sometimes can use distinct color mixtures e. In one particular implementation, a processing stage 38 monitors, e. This intensity data can be applied to an output 33 of that stage. With the image data, each packet can convey a timestamp indicating the particular time absolute, or based on a local clock at which the image data was captured.
This time data, too, can be provided on output A synchronization processor 35 coupled to such an output 33 can examine the variation in frame-to-frame intensity or color , as a function of timestamp data, to discern its periodicity. Moreover, this module can predict the next time instant at which the intensity or color will have a maxima, minima, or other particular state. A phase-locked loop may control an oscillator that is synced to mirror the periodicity of an aspect of the illumination.
More typically, a digital filter computes a time interval that is used to set or compare against timers—optionally with software interrupts. A digital phased-locked loop or delay-locked loop can also be used. A Kalman filter is commonly used for this type of phase locking. Control processor module 36 can poll the synchronization module 35 to determine when a lighting condition is expected to have a desired state.
With this information, control processor module 36 can direct setup module 34 to capture a frame of data under favorable lighting conditions for a particular purpose. For example, if the camera is imaging an object suspected of having a digital watermark encoded in a green color channel, processor 36 may direct camera 32 to capture a frame of imagery at an instant that green illumination is expected to be at a maximum, and direct processing stages 38 to process that frame for detection of such a watermark.
The camera phone may be equipped with plural LED light sources that are usually operated in tandem to produce a flash of white light illumination on a subject. Operated individually or in different combinations, however, they can cast different colors of light on the subject.
The phone processor may control the component LED sources individually, to capture frames with non-white illumination. If capturing an image that is to be read to decode a green-channel watermark, only green illumination may be applied when the frame is captured.
Or a camera may capture plural successive frames—with different LEDs illuminating the subject. These frames may be analyzed separately, or may be combined, e. The instantaneous ambient illumination can be sensed or predicted, as above , and the component LED colored light sources can be operated in a responsive manner e. While a packet-based, data driven architecture is shown in FIG. Such alternative architectures are straightforward to the artisan, based on the details given.
The artisan will appreciate that the arrangements and details noted above are arbitrary. Actual choices of arrangement and detail will depend on the particular application being served, and most likely will be different than those noted. Similarly, it will be recognized that the body of a packet can convey an entire frame of data, or just excerpts e.
Image data from a single captured frame may thus span a series of several packets. Different excerpts within a common frame may be processed differently, depending on the packet with which they are conveyed.
Moreover, a processing stage 38 may be instructed to break a packet into multiple packets—such as by splitting image data into 16 tiled smaller sub-images.
Thus, more packets may be present at the end of the system than were produced at the beginning. In like fashion, a single packet may contain a collection of data from a series of different images e. This set of data may then be processed by later stages—either as a set, or through a process that selects one or more excerpts of the packet payload that meet specified criteria e. In the particular example detailed, each processing stage 38 generally substituted the result of its processing for the data originally received in the body of the packet.
In other arrangements this need not be the case. For example, a stage may output a result of its processing to a module outside the depicted processing chain, e. Or, as noted, a stage may maintain—in the body of the output packet—the data originally received, and augment it with further data—such as the result s of its processing.
Reference was made to determining focus by reference to DCT frequency spectra, or edge detected data. Many consumer cameras perform a simpler form of focus check—simply by determining the intensity difference contrast between pairs of adjacent pixels. This difference peaks with correct focus. Such an arrangement can naturally be used in the detailed arrangements. Again, advantages can accrue from performing such processing on the sensor chip.
Each stage typically conducts a handshaking exchange with an adjoining stage—each time data is passed to or received from the adjoining stage. Such handshaking is routine to the artisan familiar with digital system design, so is not belabored here. The detailed arrangements contemplated a single image sensor. However, in other embodiments, multiple image sensors can be used. In addition to enabling conventional stereoscopic processing, two or more image sensors enable or enhance many other operations.
One function that benefits from multiple cameras is distinguishing objects. To cite a simple example, a single camera is unable to distinguish a human face from a picture of a face e. With spaced-apart sensors, in contrast, the 3D aspect of the picture can readily be discerned, allowing a picture to be distinguished from a person.
Depending on the implementation, it may be the 3D aspect of the person that is actually discerned. Another function that benefits from multiple cameras is refinement of geolocation. From differences between two images, a processor can determine the device's distance from landmarks whose location may be precisely known.
This allows refinement of other geolocation data available to the device e. Just as a cell phone may have one, two or more sensors, such a device may also have one, two or more projectors. LG and others have shown prototypes. These projectors are understood to use Texas Instruments electronically-steerable digital micro-mirror arrays, in conjunction with LED or laser illumination.
Microvision offers the PicoP Display Engine, which can be integrated into a variety of devices to yield projector capability, using a micro-electro-mechanical scanning mirror in conjunction with laser sources and an optical combiner. Use of two projectors, or two cameras, gives differentials of projection or viewing, providing additional information about the subject. In addition to stereo features, it also enables regional image correction.
For example, consider two cameras imaging a digitally watermarked object. One camera's view of the object gives one measure of a transform that can be discerned from the object's surface e. This information can be used to correct a view of the object by the other camera.
And vice versa. The two cameras can iterate, yielding a comprehensive characterization of the object surface. One camera may view a better-illuminated region of the surface, or see some edges that the other camera can't see.
One view may thus reveal information that the other does not. If a reference pattern e. The FIG. Operation of the projector can be synchronized with operation of the camera, e. Processing of the resulting image by modules 38 local or remote provides information about the surface topology of the object. This 3D topology information can be used as a clue in identifying the object. In addition to providing information about the 3D configuration of an object, shape information allows a surface to be virtually re-mapped to any other configuration, e.
Such remapping serves as a sort of normalization operation. In one particular arrangement, system 30 operates a projector to project a reference pattern into the camera's field of view. While the pattern is being projected, the camera captures a frame of image data. The resulting image is processed to detect the reference pattern, and therefrom characterize the 3D shape of an imaged object. Subsequent processing then follows, based on the 3D shape data. In connection with such arrangements, the reader is referred to the Google book-scanning U.
That patent details a particularly useful reference pattern, among other relevant disclosures. If the projector uses collimated laser illumination such as the PicoP Display Engine , the pattern will be in focus regardless of distance to the object onto which the pattern is projected. This can be used as an aid to adjust focus of a cell phone camera onto an arbitrary subject. Because the projected pattern is known in advance by the camera, the captured image data can be processed to optimize detection of the pattern—such as by correlation.
Or the pattern can be selected to facilitate detection—such as a checkerboard that appears strongly at a single frequency in the image frequency domain when properly focused. Once the camera is adjusted for optimum focus of the known, collimated pattern, the projected pattern can be discontinued, and the camera can then capture a properly focused image of the underlying subject onto which the pattern was projected. Synchronous detection can also be employed. The pattern may be projected during capture of one frame, and then off for capture of the next.
The two frames can then be subtracted. The common imagery in the two frames generally cancels—leaving the projected pattern at a much higher signal to noise ratio. A projected pattern can be used to determine correct focus for several subjects in the camera's field of view. A child may pose in front of the Grand Canyon. The laser-projected pattern allows the camera to focus on the child in a first frame, and on the background in a second frame.
These frames can then be composited—taking from each the portion properly in focus. If a lens arrangement is used in the cell phone's projector system, it can also be used for the cell phone's camera system.
A mirror can be controllably moved to steer the camera or the projector to the lens. Or a beam-splitter arrangement 80 can be used FIG. Here the body of a cell phone 81 incorporates a lens 82 , which provides a light to a beam-splitter Part of the illumination is routed to the camera sensor The other part of the optical path goes to a micro-mirror projector system Lenses used in cell phone projectors typically are larger aperture than those used for cell phone cameras, so the camera may gain significant performance advantages e.
Or, reciprocally, the beam splitter 84 can be asymmetrical—not equally favoring both optical paths. For example, the beam-splitter can be a partially-silvered element that couples a smaller fraction e. The beam-splitter may thus serve to couple a larger fraction e.
By this arrangement the camera sensor 12 receives light of a conventional—for a cell phone camera—intensity notwithstanding the larger aperture lens , while the light output from the projector is only slightly dimmed by the lens sharing arrangement. In another arrangement, a camera head is separate—or detachable—from the cell phone body. The cell phone body is carried in a user's pocket or purse, while the camera head is adapted for looking out over a user's pocket e.
The two communicate by Bluetooth or other wireless arrangement, with capture instructions sent from the phone body, and image data sent from the camera head.
In a related arrangement, a strobe light for the camera is separate—or detachable—from the cell phone body. Chief Executive Officer, Director. Chief Operating Officer, Director. Chief Accounting Officer. You should communicate only with the company regarding the transaction or with questions concerning the company. This document does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such an offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction.
Any transaction hereunder will not be registered under the U. Securities act of , as amended, in reliance on one or more exemptions provided thereunder and will not be registered or qualified under any state securities laws.
Neither the U. Securities and exchange commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved or will approve or disapprove of any securities or has passed or will pass upon the accuracy or adequacy of any information or the merits of any transaction.
Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense. There can be no assurances that the projected results will be realized or that actual results will not differ materially from those projected.
Comparisons to other companies contained herein are for illustrative purposes only.
A new bumpmap file is also included. Moreover, it should be understood that while in some respects the depicted images are ordered according to ease of identifying the subject and formulating a response, in other respects they are not. Facial detection and recognition may be employed i. Other processing operations can similarly be operated remotely. Copy and add Already have an account? Not that it's too important an option since military aircraft have specific military operator names, but I added the military option to keep it consistent with X-Plane, Aircraft Traffic - Kragg - MSR 026 (File. The restaurant server offers three cents if the phone will present the discount offer to the user in its presentation of search results, or five cents Aircraft Traffic - Kragg - MSR 026 (File it will also promote the link to second place in the ranked list, or ten cents if it will do that and be the only discount offer presented in Aircraft Traffic - Kragg - MSR 026 (File results list. The traffic density slider not yet functional sets traffic density to the specified percentage of what is normal for that airport.
Away - Dru Hill - InDRUpendence Day (CD, Album), Chasing Pamela - John Williams (4) - Spacecamp / Yes Giorgio (CD), Gun Law - Various - 70s The Original Soundtrack (CD, Album), Palm Tree Song - Passport (2) - Earthborn (Vinyl, LP)