As the playing of gramophone records causes gradual degradation of the recording, they are best preserved by transferring them onto other media and playing the records as rarely as possible. They need to be stored on edge, and do best under environmental conditions that most humans would find comfortable. Where old disc recordings are considered to be of artistic or historic interest, from before the era of tape or where no tape master exists, archivists play back the disc on suitable equipment and record the result, typically onto a digital format, which can be copied and manipulated to remove analog flaws without any further damage to the source recording.
For example, Nimbus Records uses a specially built horn record player  to transfer 78s. Anyone can do this using a standard record player with a suitable pickup, a phono-preamp pre-amplifier and a typical personal computer.
However, for accurate transfer, professional archivists carefully choose the correct stylus shape and diameter, tracking weight, equalisation curve and other playback parameters and use high-quality analogue-to-digital converters. As an alternative to playback with a stylus, a recording can be read optically, processed with software that calculates the velocity that the stylus would be moving in the mapped grooves and converted to a digital recording format.
This does no further damage to the disc and generally produces a better sound than normal playback. This technique also has the potential to allow for reconstruction of broken or otherwise damaged discs. Groove recordings, first designed in the final quarter of the 19th century, held a predominant position for nearly a century—withstanding competition from reel-to-reel tape , the 8-track cartridge , and the compact cassette.
In , the compact disc surpassed the gramophone record in unit sales. Vinyl records experienced a sudden decline in popularity between and ,  when the major label distributors restricted their return policies, which retailers had been relying on to maintain and swap out stocks of relatively unpopular titles. First the distributors began charging retailers more for new product if they returned unsold vinyl, and then they stopped providing any credit at all for returns.
Retailers, fearing they would be stuck with anything they ordered, only ordered proven, popular titles that they knew would sell, and devoted more shelf space to CDs and cassettes. Record companies also deleted many vinyl titles from production and distribution, further undermining the availability of the format and leading to the closure of pressing plants.
This rapid decline in the availability of records accelerated the format's decline in popularity, and is seen by some as a deliberate ploy to make consumers switch to CDs, which unlike today, were more profitable for the record companies. In spite of their flaws, such as the lack of portability, records still have enthusiastic supporters. Vinyl records continue to be manufactured and sold today,  especially by independent rock bands and labels, although record sales are considered to be a niche market composed of audiophiles , collectors , and DJs.
Old records and out-of-print recordings in particular are in much demand by collectors the world over. See Record collecting. Many popular new albums are given releases on vinyl records and older albums are also given reissues, sometimes on audiophile-grade vinyl. In the United States, annual vinyl sales increased by Many electronic dance music and hip hop releases today are still preferred on vinyl; however, digital copies are still widely available.
This is because for disc jockeys "DJs" , vinyl has an advantage over the CD: direct manipulation of the medium. DJ techniques such as slip-cueing , beatmatching , and scratching originated on turntables.
With CDs or compact audio cassettes one normally has only indirect manipulation options, e. With a record one can place the stylus a few grooves farther in or out, accelerate or decelerate the turntable, or even reverse its direction, provided the stylus, record player , and record itself are built to withstand it. Figures released in the United States in early showed that sales of vinyl albums nearly doubled in , with 1.
Sales have continued to rise into the s, with around 2. In artist Jack White sold 40, copies of his second solo release, Lazaretto , on vinyl. The sales of the record beat the largest sales in one week on vinyl since The sales record was previously held by Pearl Jam 's Vitalogy , which sold 34, copies in one week in In , the sale of vinyl records was the only physical music medium with increasing sales with relation to the previous year.
Sales of other mediums including individual digital tracks, digital albums and compact discs have fallen, the last having the greatest drop-in-sales rate. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.
In , CBS released the CX format, downward compatible for higher dynamic range and noise reduction. VinylVideo was a 45 RPM format to store a low resolution black and white video on record. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the magazine, see Phonograph Record magazine. Disc-shaped vinyl analog sound storage medium.
Play media. See also: LP record. Further information: High fidelity. Main article: Laser turntable. See also: Recording medium comparison. Main article: Unusual types of gramophone records. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. For other uses, see Broken Record disambiguation.
Further information: Analog recording vs. Further information: Production of phonograph records. See also: Vinyl revival. This section needs to be updated.
Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. April Archived from the original on Wired UK. Information Week. The New York Times. The talking phonograph. Scientific American, 14 December, Retrieved Time Inc: 87— Music Educators Journal , Vol.
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Tips and Warnings. Related Articles. Article Summary. Method 1 of Talk to your neighbor. Many people jump straight to drastic measures instead of simply talking to the neighbor about their concerns.
Unless you're on bad terms with your neighbor, the best way to solve this problem is usually to just talk to him or her about it. You could casually approach your neighbor next time you see him or her outside, or write a note asking to set up a time to talk. Don't make legal threats; you may have to do that later, but for now, try to keep things civil. Assume your neighbor is unaware of the problem.
Say something like, "I knew you'd want to know that Sadie's barking is audible to us at night, especially since our bedroom faces your yard. Thank your neighbor for hearing you out and making a change. Most considerate neighbors will do their best to accommodate you right away. Make helpful suggestions. It's possible your neighbor is well aware of the issue but isn't sure how to get the dog to stop barking.
If you're pretty sure you know what the problem is, there's nothing wrong with making suggestions. This is especially effective if you're a dog owner, too. You can commiserate over how tough it can be to get a dog to stop barking. Here are a few common problems you might consider bringing up: Dogs kept outside commonly bark from boredom; this is especially true for energetic breeds like German Shepherds, terriers including Pit Bulls , and guard dogs like Dobermans and Rottweilers.
Suggest that the dog needs more exercise. Obedience training can be very helpful. You might want to provide the names of a few well-rated training schools in the area. Dogs also bark when they're either too cold or too hot. Many people have the misconception that dogs' fur keeps them warm in subzero weather; it's not the case unless the dog is a husky.
If you've seen the dog shivering or looking miserable in the heat of the day, tell your neighbor the dog could be barking because it's uncomfortable. Try to agree on a concrete solution. Rather than expecting your neighbor to put a stop to all barking, it might be more feasible to agree on a practical solution that works for both of you. The season two finale of Doom Patrol, titled "Wax Patrol," continued the season's exploration of generational trauma. Cardi B is opening up about her politics.
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Jun 29, PCD Live from London. Method 1 of Mechanical Electrical Electronic and digital. Good Planets Are Hard to Find. Helppp - 9GAG has the best funny pics, gifs, videos, gaming, anime, manga, movie, tv, cosplay, sport, food, memes, cute, fail, wtf photos on the internet! Retrieved 29 June A further limitation of the gramophone record is that fidelity steadily declines as playback progresses; there is 2Mute vs Random Method - Feelin Good (Vinyl) vinyl per second available for fine reproduction of high frequencies at the large-diameter beginning of the groove than exist at the smaller-diameters close to the end of the side. Breakage was very common in the shellac era.
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